Following are the types of sperm disorders in men that need to be recognized

Abnormalities in sperm can cause problems when someone wants to have a baby, one of which is the risk of experiencing infertility or impaired fertility. In assessing the health and quality of sperm, some people measure the thickness and amount through laboratory tests. But besides these two factors, there are other factors that also affect sperm quality which include the number, shape, and movement of sperm. When there is a problem or difference from one of these three factors, it can be said that there is an abnormality in the sperm.

What are the conditions for sperm to be said to be healthy?

Sperm can be declared healthy (normozoospermic) if they meet several requirements after being examined through a laboratory, including:

  • The volume of semen is in the range of 1.4-1.7ml
  • There are as many as 33-46 million sperm cells contained in semen
  • Sperm concentration of 12-16 million/ml
  • The percentage of total sperm motility/movement is at 38-42%
  • The percentage of motility / progressive movement of sperm is at 31-34%
  • Vitality percentage is at 55-63%
  • Percentage of sperm morphology/shape between 3-4%

What Are the Types of Abnormalities in Sperm?

There are at least 9 types of abnormalities in sperm that need to be recognized, including

  1. Asthenozoospermia
    Asthenozoospermia is an abnormal condition in the form of a decrease in sperm motility. Under normal conditions, sperm will move quickly and straight ahead. Whereas for asthenozoospermia sufferers, the speed of sperm movement can decrease. There are several things that can be the cause of this condition, ranging from genetic conditions, smoking habits, trauma to the pelvis, to varicocele.
  2. Teratozoospermia
    Teratozoospermia is a condition when the shape of the sperm that comes out is abnormal resulting in a decrease in sperm movement and leading to failure to enter the egg. This abnormality can be marked by the number of heads or tails of more than one sperm. Until now, there is no specific way to treat teratozoospermia. However, sufferers of this disorder are advised to live a healthier lifestyle.
  3. Hypospermia
    Hypospermia is a condition when the amount of semen released is small, even less than 1.5 ml. In general, this condition does not cause infertility. However, this condition needs to be considered if a small amount of semen is followed by a low sperm concentration because this can lead to infertility.
  4. Hyperspermia
    In contrast to hypospermia, hyperspermia is a condition in which the amount of seminal fluid that comes out exceeds the normal volume by > 15.5 ml. This condition is rare and does not always cause fertility problems and does not need to be treated if it does not affect fertility.
  5. Oligozoospermia
    Oligozoospermia is a condition that occurs when sperm cells contained in semen are small in number and can lead to impaired fertility. Sperm concentration which can be expressed as oligozoospermia is below 20 million sperm/ml and this is caused by various factors. The factors that cause this condition are the presence of varicocele, infection, ejaculation problems, and consumption of certain drugs.
  6. Azoospermia
    Azoospermia is a condition in which the semen that comes out does not contain sperm. In fact, fertilizing an egg requires a lot of sperm because not all sperm cells can survive. There are several causes of this condition, including hormonal disorders, genetic disorders, or blockages in the reproductive tract. Some of the cases of azoospermia can still be treated according to the cause.
  7. Leukocytospermia
    Leukocytospermia, also known as pyosermia, is a condition where the semen that comes out contains a lot of white blood cells. The white blood cells can reduce fertility due to damaged sperm. The presence of this disorder can be a sign of an infection or autoimmune disease in the body.
  8. Aspermia
    In aspermia disorder, the sufferer does not release semen and sperm when ejaculating. But even so, sufferers can still feel the orgasm. The factors that cause aspermia are quite diverse, such as hormonal imbalances, sexual dysfunction, defects in the reproductive tract, genetic abnormalities, or retrograde ejaculation. In certain cases, aspermia can be treated by treating the cause.
  9. Necrozoospermia
    Necrozoospermia is one of the causes of male infertility, where the sperm cells in the semen die so they cannot move. The percentage of these cases is still minimal, so further research is needed to find out the causes and how to follow up on the condition of necrozoospermia.

These are some types of abnormalities in sperm that need to be recognized. Immediately check and consult a trusted doctor if you want to know the condition of your sperm.

The article was written by dr. H. Endro Purwoko, Sp.And (Andrology Specialist at EMC Tangerang Hospital).